The United States of America is in the North America region, along with Canada, the country with which it limits to the north, and with Mexico, the country with which it limits to the south. Contrary to the general belief, the country does not have an official language, although most of its population and state businesses are conducted in English. Some states have autonomously declared English as their official language, but others such as Hawaii include Hawaiian as one of the two official languages (next to English). The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico uses Spanish and English as official languages.
The Latin population (denominated in official documents such as the Census, Hispanic-Latino population, to incorporate all Spanish speakers) has grown to constitute almost a fifth of the national population (17.6% in 2015), and the Spanish language has reached a great prominence in the country. In several states, there are entire neighborhoods in which Spanish has become the free language (for example in Arizona, Texas, New Mexico, Florida, Illinois, California, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, Maryland and the District of Columbia, among others). According to census data, about 31% of Latinos living in the United States do not speak English fluently.
Until August 2019, the estimated population of the country is 331.915.422 people, of which 163.857.832 (49.4%) are male. The age average of male population is 37.6 years. The Latino population is mostly made up of people of Mexican origin (60%), whether they are recent migrants or those born in the country with ancestors from the southern neighboring country. The rest (40%) are migrants from the Caribbean (Dominican Republic and Cuba, as well as US citizens who have migrated from Puerto Rico to the mainland). Additionally, there are migrants from Central and South America. Recently, migration from Central America has increased due to violence in several of the countries of this region. In past decades, there was an important exodus, also from Central America because of the revolutions and counter-revolutions that impacted people's productivity, security and quality of life.
There is documentary evidence that the Latino population is comparatively younger than others in the country, has a lower level of education, their financial position is worse than many other groups. In a Gallup survey in 2012, 4% of the people interviewed (121 thousand) identified themselves with a member of the LGBTI + group, which coincides with the data of the American National Health Survey (1990-1992); the National Survey of Health and Social Life (1992), the study conducted by the Guttmacher Institute, which places the proportion of MSM between 3.5 and 4.9% of the total adult male population.
Laws that condemned homosexuality as a crime ("sodomy") have been repealed in most states of the union, so that no adult man can be legally prosecuted for having consensual sexual relationship with another adult man in those states. Unfortunately, 16 of the territories (the majority within the subregion known as the “biblical belt”) have refused to accept a federal decision and are obstinate in maintaining penalizing legislation. Those states are Alabama, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi and Oklahoma. Three states focus their efforts on criminalizing relations between men and those are: Kansas, Kentucky and Texas.
The federal decision to decriminalize same-sex sexual relations was taken by the Supreme Court of Justice in the June 26, 2003 ruling (ruling in the Lawrence v. Texas case). The magistrates' ruling goes beyond decriminalizing consensual sexual activity between two adult men. The ruling establishes that sexual activity among adolescents of close ages and by mutual consent is legal throughout the country.
Since June 26, 2015, all states must grant marriage licenses and recognize heterosexuals equally, same-sex marriages. This ruling by the Supreme Court results from the ruling in the Obergefell case against Hodges. The importance of this ruling is that it is based on XIV Amendment of the Constitution of the country (of July 9, 1868, which protects the rights of citizens and decrees equality between the law of all persons). The ruling also recognizes the rights of same-sex couples to adopt. Crimes that result in hate for sexual orientation or gender identity are prosecuted, in accordance with the Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2009, which was proposed following several hate crimes, such as the murder of Matthew Shepard.
The political context of conservatism, prejudice, ignorance, homophobia and xenophobia that the country is going through, imposes a burden on the quality of life, safety and well-being of the Latino population. In many places, including electronic media people are harassed or frankly attacked verbally and even physically for speaking Spanish. For Latin-gay men it can be highly stressful to socialize in this environment in which, as you can remember, a shooting with a lot of victims occurred in a gay bar with Latin clientele. Laws and political correctness can be a barrier of protection for the Latino gay population in the country, but the environment of structural hatred has contributed to increasing all the vulnerabilities of the group.
HIV epidemic has disproportionately impacted the population of gay and bisexual men in the country (90% of new infections). However, some populations are more affected than others. Nearly one fifth of new cases diagnosed in the country are within the population of Latin-gay men, particularly in the 25 to 34 years old group (followed closely by the 15 to 24 years old group).
According to the Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) the risk that has a Latino man to contracting HIV throughout life is 1 in 48. Of the total number of people living with HIV in the United States, about 24% are Latin, most of them are men.
Because of the legal system in the United States is extraordinarily litigious (a real or perceived offense can result in a demand with a claim for reparation of damages, sometimes through large sums). For this reason, people often refrain from discriminating or offending others. The exception occurs when it is perceived that the third person does not have the necessary power, control, resources or knowledge to defend themselves.
It is possible that there are cases of discrimination that go unnoticed because people do not report them. It is important to mention that 13 states criminalize anal sex if one of the people lives with HIV and does not inform the sexual partner.
The law that protects people living with HIV against discrimination is found under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
In the country, the State delegates to the private sector the responsibility for the attention of people, so it can be said that the national health system is a for-profit company. People only can access to health care if they have private insurance. Proposals to provide affordable care (such as the so-called “Obamacare”, Medicaid and even Medicare) are permanently threatened by politicians interested on the status quo. There are non-profit non-governmental organizations that offer prevention, diagnosis and treatment services.