Paraguay is in the heart of Latin America and does not have sea. It is divided into 17 departments and is an unitarian presidential republic with approximately 7 million of inhabitants. It is one of the poorest and most unequal countries in the region, with an economy largely immersed in informality, notable lags in education and health coverage, lack of infrastructure and poor access to drinking water. Globally, Paraguay has the most unequal distribution of land and is one of the countries with the highest deforestation rates.
In Paraguay, the two official languages are Guarani and Spanish. Most of the population is bilingual, predominantly Guaraní speaker, and a minority that speaks only in Spanish. There are also 18 other indigenous languages, in addition to Guaraní, such as Tomárãho, Nivaclé, Ayoreo, Enlhet Norte, Maká, Ybytóso, Aché and others.
The current population of Paraguay according to the General Directorate of Statistics and Censuses in the report on “Projections of national population, urban and rural areas, by sex and age, 2019” is 7,152,703 inhabitants, presenting some parity by sex at the national level (50.4% men and 49.6% women).
Historically it has presented a predominantly young population, but currently there is a reduction in distribution, “where 29.2 of the population is under 15 years old, 64.2% are between 15-64 years old and just over 6.5 % are in adulthood”.
At the national level, poverty affects 26.40% of the total population of the country, according to the results of the 2017 Permanent Household Survey, this situation is reflected in factors such as the precariousness of housing, low income, problems of basic services access such as education, health, among others.
Paraguay exhibits one of the highest homophobia rates on the continent, along with Suriname and Guyana, with indicators of countries in the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Subtropical Africa, thus moving away from the reality of other countries in Latin America.
The country exhibits a National Constitution that in its article 46, establishes the fundamental right to non-discrimination in the following terms: “All the inhabitants of the Republic are equal in dignity and rights. Discriminations are not allowed. The State will remove the obstacles and prevent the factors that maintain or propitiate them. The protections established over unfair inequalities will not be considered as discriminatory factors but as egalitarian”. Despite this, the State has only promoted hate speech that has been carried out since the dictatorship.
The period from the opening of "democracy" (1989) to the present has been recorded more than 60 murders of trans people who have gone unpunished, in addition to several acts of violence and discrimination against trans adolescents. 2017 was a year where conservative groups called “pro-life, pro-family” pressured the government to take certain measures against the mediation of the so-called “gender ideology”. First, the country led a “LGTBI + anti-rights” alliance at the 47th General Assembly of the OAS and requested that words such as sexual orientation, gender identity be replaced. In addition, the Minister of Education of these times, Enrique Riera, through a resolution, prohibited “the dissemination and use of printed materials, such as digital, referring to gender theory and / or gender ideology, in educational institutions under the Ministry of Education and Science”.
Given this context, there is a list of the laws that remain unregulated in Paraguay and that it is urgent to approve them in pursuit of the LGBTI+ human rights and then a list of laws that exist but are still to be complied with.
1- "Law against all forms of discrimination"
2- “Equal Marriage”
3- “Law of Integral Sexual Education”
According to PRONASIDA data (The National Program for the Control of AIDS and STIs, agency dependent on the Health Ministry) until 2018 there were 19,811 people living with HIV, 71% of them is from the key population (MSM).
In this country, the State has made gay, bisexual and MSM invisible in HIV care, even though they are one of the most vulnerable populations. The lack of clear policies, campaigns and prevention, care and support actions aimed at this population highlights institutionalized homophobia, the main obstacle that we must confront to stop HIV from being a public health problem.
Law 3940/09 guarantees the full exercise of all rights to people who live
with HIV. Despite this, there are still several types of discrimination and misinformation in society. The most frequent cases consist of the requirement of companies and institutions of the HIV test, layoffs among others.
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