According to the National Institute of Development Information (INIDE), the estimated population of Nicaragua is 6.45 million people; 51% to women and 49% to men. It is a country of mostly young people. The population under the age of 19, which includes girls, boys and adolescents, represents more than 42% of the country's total population.
Crisis and Migration
Nicaragua remains one of the least developed countries in Latin America, where access to basic services is a constant challenge. Nicaragua maintained a good sustained growth rate of 4.9% in the last 3 years, one of the largest growths in the region. However, the political crisis that the country has experienced since April 2018 contracted the economy 3.8 percent and would contract to -5 percent in 2019, according to the latest forecasts from the World Bank and ECLAC.
According to the Nicaraguan Foundation for Economic and Social Development (FUNIDES), it estimates that 417,000 people have been laid off or suspended from their jobs, of which 127,000 are unemployed. ECLAC, for its part, estimates that by 2019 the Nicaraguan economy will have the second worst performance in Latin America, with a decrease of -2.0%. The crisis has also generated an exodus of Nicaraguans, who mainly take refuge in Costa Rica, a country that has received more than 50,000 “unique” migrants, according to statistics from the country's immigration authorities.
The country has a set of laws and policies that express the will to respect the human rights of the LGBTI collective. Among the main actions is the creation of the Office of the Special Prosecutor for Sexual Diversity in November 2009, under the direction of the Office for the Defense of Human Rights (PDDH). It should be noted that PDDH in 10 years failed to overcome the limitations in positioning in areas of political advocacy and social advocacy guaranteeing the constitutional rights of these communities.
Another legal tools are:
Law 423, General Health Law: That protects the right to health and the right of people to access to this right without discrimination. People with HIV have the same rights as the general population to receive health care. This law also categorically protects the rights of persons in vulnerable situations, establishing the guarantee of gratuity and giving it a priority.
Law No. 641, Criminal Code in force since 2008. Repealed the previous 100-year code, and decriminalized same-sex sexual relations and incorporated four articles:
● Article 36 that refers to aggravating circumstances in criminal responsibility specifically in subsection 5, where discrimination is based on sexual orientation.
● Article 315 on discrimination in employment.
● Article 427 that sanctions discrimination when the exercise of a constitutional right is limited.
● Article 428 that sanctions those who publicly promote the performance of acts of discrimination.
Nicaragua registers a concentrated epidemic; this indicates a prevalence greater than 5% in key population. In the 2016 EVC study, the prevalence rate in the MSM population was 12.3%; in Trans feminine (PTF) 6.2%, in sex workers women (MTS) 3.2%, in pregnant women 0.17%, in population of 15 to 49 years old 0,30%, in young people of 15 to 24 years old the prevalence is 0.25%, in adolescents of 15 to 19 it is 0.1% and in deprived of freedom (PPL) 3.1%. (Health Ministry of Nicaragua, 2017)
According to the epidemiological statistics of the MINSA, in the last three years (2015 to 2017, the epidemiological data 2018 are unknown); were recorded 1944 new HIV infections in the male population, of which 633 (33%) are MSM. Similarly, the incidence rate per 100,000 in heterosexual men, went from 38 in 2015, to 25 in 2016 and 15 in 2017, but not in MSM, which increased from 191 in 2015 to 448 in 2016 to 523 in 2017; exceeding 17 times the national incidence rate.
In the same way, the chances of HIV infection in heterosexual men are 8 per 100 thousand, whereas in MSM it is 130 per 100 thousand. Therefore, there is a false perception, of a tendency to reduce new HIV infections in the country, epidemiological statistics indicate an alarming increase in the HIV epidemic in MSM in the last 3 years.
Law 820: 'Law for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights in front HIV and AIDS for its prevention and care' has its antecedents in Law 238, to which members have been extended with voice and vote in the Nicaraguan Commission of AIDS, the key populations being represented.
671-2014 Ministerial Resolution of the Health Ministry, which establishes non-discrimination based on sexual orientation, and gender identity, also urges quality care in public and private health units, and establishes the imposition of sanctions for those who do not comply with these regulations, also establishes mechanisms for filing of complaints; as established in Law 641, Criminal Code, in relation to the crime of Non-discrimination.
The expenses of attention and treatment depend in large proportion of external resources, and represent 30% of the total expenditure for 2012, according to the Case Study of Investment in AIDS 2012; USD 7.2 million are to resources allocated to ART, supplies for opportunistic infections and human resources expenses.
According to the Case Study of investment in AIDS 2012, 59% of the total expenditure of 2012 (US $ 14.25 million), was used for prevention, however, investment in Key Populations was 5.26% equivalent to USD 0.75 million, of which 1.6% (USD 0.4 million) were allocated to MSM and Transgender population, and 1.5% (USD 0.35 million) in MTS and its Clients; Even though the prevalence of HIV in key populations is between 11 and 85 times higher than the general population.
Prevention expenditure for Key Populations is financed entirely from external sources (Global Fund and USAID). This unit has reacted on the contexts to achieve the sustainability of the actions, alerting and encouraging the country to have a greater participation in the expenditure directed to this segment of the population, in order to reduce the financing gaps gradually in the face of the imminent decrease of external funds.
GayLatino representative organization in Nicaragua:
The Center for Education and Prevention of AIDS “CEPRESI” is a non-profit, community-based civil association, legally constituted according to the laws of the Republic of Nicaragua, on May 19, 1993, directed by professionals from various disciplines. 26 years support CEPRESI as a national and regional reference organization in Central and Latin America, with work and political leadership in the promotion and defense of Human Rights of Sexual Diversity, promoting human rights, education and citizenship building, education and prevention of STIs and HIV / AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, the gender approach, new masculinity, access to universal health, and the promotion of citizen participation as a fundamental pillar of the rule of law.
Throughout these years, CEPRESI has been developing a series of programs and actions aimed at fulfilling the mission, vision and strategic objectives of the organization, answering at the same time to the changing social, political, economic and epidemiological dynamics that the country confronts through time.
Our institutional approach has been retaking a reflective, purposeful and educational work to promote equitable and equal relations, we are committed to social work and respect for the rights and guarantees emanating from the national legal system and international protection mechanisms.
GayLatino Delegate: Norman Gutierrez Morgan. Adress: Managua, Nicaragua, Principal Street of Altamira, next to Ferreteria Morales Cuadra, 214. Telephone: 505 22707988 - Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Website: www.cepresi.org.ni